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 Cardiology... Magnesium

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PostSubject: Cardiology... Magnesium   Thu Sep 20, 2007 10:13 pm

Magnesium & Cardiology



Summaries of the latest research concerning magnesium

By Hans R. Larsen MSc ChE








Magnesium benefits heart patients

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA.



Quote:




The health of the lining (endothelium) of the blood vessels is crucial
to cardiovascular health. There is considerable evidence that a
dysfunction of the endothelium can lead to atherosclerosis and
subsequent coronary artery disease (CAD). Researchers at the
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center now report that oral magnesium
supplementation can substantially reduce endothelial dysfunction and
improve exercise tolerance in CAD patients. The randomized,
prospective, double blind, placebo- controlled trial involved 50
patients (41 men and 9 women with a mean age of 67 years) who had been
diagnosed with CAD either by angiography or after having had a heart
attack. Initial evaluation of the patients showed that 72 per cent of
them had a lower than normal tissue magnesium level. The tissue
magnesium level was measured in sublingual epithelial cells scraped
from under the tongue or from between the gums and the upper or lower
lips. Magnesium levels measured in sublingual cells have been found to
correlate well with levels found in heart tissue.

The patients were randomized to receive either a placebo or 365 mg of
elemental magnesium (in the form of oxide and carbonate) daily. After
six months tissue magnesium concentration was measured again, a
treadmill test was performed, and endothelial function was evaluated
using ultrasound. Patients in the magnesium group increased their
intracellular magnesium level by about 10 per cent to reach the lower
limit of the normal range. Endothelial function (flow-mediated
vasodilation measured at the brachial artery) improved by 25 per cent
in the magnesium group as compared to a 4.5 per cent decline in the
placebo group over the six-month period. The magnesium supplemented
group also performed significantly better on the treadmill test than
did the placebo group. Not only did they improve their exercise
duration as compared to baseline and the placebo group, but it was also
highly significant that none of them experienced an arrhythmia during
the test whereas four patients in the placebo group did.

The researchers suggest that magnesium may protect the heart against
the detrimental effects of a calcium overload and may improve
intracellular ATP production and glucose use. They conclude that oral
magnesium supplementation improves exercise tolerance and endothelial
function in coronary artery disease patients. NOTE: This study was
partially funded by Asta Medica Company, Inc. (Vienna, Austria) the
manufacturer of the magnesium supplement.

Shechter, Michael, et al. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease.





Magnesium and heart surgery in children

CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.




Quote:




Administration of magnesium has been shown to reduce the incidence of
heart surgery related arrhythmias in adults. It has also been observed
that the magnesium level in the right atrial tissue is lower in adult
patients with postoperative cardiac arrhythmias compared to patients
without arrhythmias after heart surgery. Researchers at the Department
of Pediatric Cardiology at the Medical University of South Carolina now
report that children undergoing surgery for congenital heart defects
develop a severe magnesium deficiency immediately after surgery. This
deficiency is associated with a greater incidence of a serious
arrhythmia (junctional ectopic tachycardia) and can be prevented by an
infusion of magnesium sulfate immediately after completion of the
surgery.



The study involved 28 pediatric patients (average age of five years)
who were scheduled to undergo heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass
(CPB). The patients were randomly assigned to receive an infusion of
magnesium (30 mg/kg body weight of a five per cent saline solution
administered over a period of 10 minutes) or an infusion of saline
solution immediately after cessation of CPB. Blood levels of magnesium
were measured in all patients before surgery, before CPB, after CPB,
upon arrival in the intensive care unit (ICU), and then every four
hours for 24 hours. Each patient was also monitored for arrhythmias for
24 hours with a Holter monitor.

Comparison of the results for the two treatment groups revealed that
the magnesium level was significantly below normal in patients who had
received saline solution (placebo) when they arrived in the ICU and for
the following 20 hours. Patients who had received the magnesium
infusion, on the other hand, had magnesium levels that were well within
the normal range (1.6 to 2.3 mg/dL) when tested in the ICU and for the
following 20 hours. There were no incidences of junctional ectopic
tachycardia in the magnesium group, but four (27 per cent) of the
patients in the placebo group experienced this serious arrhythmia. It
stopped after a magnesium infusion. The researchers "recommend routine
measurement of magnesium levels after CPB in children undergoing heart
surgery, with timely magnesium supplementation in the postoperative
period." Dorman, B. Hugh, et al. Magnesium supplementation in the
prevention of arrhythmias in pediatric patients undergoing surgery for
congenital heart defects.
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PostSubject: Re: Cardiology... Magnesium   Thu Sep 20, 2007 10:14 pm

Supplement recommendations for chronic fatigue syndrome

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA.

Quote:




Dr. Melvyn Werbach, MD of the UCLA School of Medicine has just
published a thorough review of nutritional deficiencies involved in
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). These include deficiencies in vitamin
C, coenzyme Q10, magnesium, zinc, sodium, l-tryptophan, l-carnitine,
essential fatty acids, and various B vitamins. He points out that there
is some evidence that the deficiencies are caused by the disease itself
rather than by an inadequate diet. He suggests that the deficiencies
not only contribute to the symptoms of CFS but also impair the healing
process. Although the results of supplementation trials involving CFS
patients have been inconclusive so far Dr. Werbach nevertheless
recommends that CFS patients be given large doses of certain
supplements for at least a trial period to see if their symptoms
improve. His recommendations are:





Quote:





Folic acid: 1-10 mg/day for 3 months

Vitamin B12: 6-70 mg (intramuscular injection) per week for 3 weeks

Vitamin C: 10-15 grams/day

Magnesium: 600 mg/day + 2400 mg/day of malic acid for 8 weeks

Zinc: 135 mg/day for 15 days

5-hydroxytryptophan: 100 mg three times daily for 3 months (if fibromyalgia is present)

L-carnitine: 1-2 grams three times daily for 3 months

Coenzyme Q10: 100 mg/day for 3 months

Essential fatty acids: 280 mg GLA and 135 mg EPA daily for 3 months

The supplements should be administered with medical supervision and
accompanied by a high-potency vitamin/mineral supplement for the
duration of the trial.







Magnesium deficiency linked to diabetes

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND.

Quote:




A link between low body levels of magnesium and type 2 diabetes has
long been suspected, but there has been no agreement as to whether low
magnesium levels cause diabetes or the presence of diabetes results in
low magnesium levels. A team of researchers from the Johns Hopkins
University School of Medicine and three other medical schools have just
released a major report which clearly supports the idea that low
magnesium levels are an important risk factor for diabetes. Their study
involved 12,128 middle-aged white and black Americans who were
non-diabetic at the start of the study. Six years later 367 of the
black participants (14 per cent) and 739 (8 per cent) of the white
participants had developed diabetes. A comparison of baseline blood
serum levels and the incidence of diabetes showed that among white
participants those with high magnesium levels (greater than 0.95
mmol/L) had a 50 per cent lower incidence of diabetes than participants
with low levels (0.25-0.70 mmol/L). Total incidence was 11.1 cases per
1000 person-years at the high level and 22.8 cases at the low level. No
significant correlation between serum magnesium levels and diabetes was
found among the black participants. Surprisingly, the researchers also
did not find any association between dietary intake of magnesium and
the incidence of diabetes. Other studies have, however, found such a
correlation. The researchers suggest that increased magnesium
consumption along with modification of other risk factors for type 2
diabetes (obesity and lack of exercise) might represent a novel means
to prevent type 2 diabetes.





Lack of magnesium and heart disease

ATLANTA, GEORGIA.



Quote:




Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have just
released the results of a study which shows a clear association between
low blood serum levels of magnesium and the risk of dying from heart
disease and other causes. The study involved 12,000 participants who
were enrolled between 1971 and 1975 and followed for 19 years. At the
end of the study 4282 of the participants had died, 1005 of them from
ischemic heart disease. Compared with participants having a magnesium
level of 0.80 mmol/L or less the risk of dying from heart disease was
21 per cent lower among participants with magnesium concentrations
between 0.80 and 0.84 mmol/L and 31 to 34 per cent lower among
participants with concentrations higher than 0.84 mmol/L. This
correlation held true even after adjusting for other major variables
such as age, sex, race, education, smoking status, systolic blood
pressure, use of anti- hypertensive medications, body mass index,
history of diabetes, alcohol use, and the level of physical activity.
The researchers estimate that about 11 per cent of the almost 500,000
deaths from coronary heart disease which occurred in 1993 in the United
States can be attributed to low magnesium levels. They also point out
that a recent study (NHANES I) found that about 23 per cent of the
people evaluated had magnesium levels below 0.80 mmol/L. Other studies
have shown that a large proportion of the American population does not
consume the recommended daily allowance of magnesium (350 mg/day for
men and 280 mg/day for women).



Magnesium supplementation helps heart patients

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA.



Quote:




Clinical trials have shown that a magnesium injection can reduce the
risk of dying during a heart attack. Whether orally administered
magnesium is of benefit to heart patients is unclear. Now researchers
at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center report that daily oral magnesium
supplementation may help prevent the formation of blood clots in
patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD). Their experiment
involved 42 CAD patients who were randomized to receive either
magnesium oxide tablets (800-1200 mg/day) or a placebo for a
three-month period followed by a four-week washout period, and then the
alternative treatment for three months. All patients were taking
aspirin as well as their other regular medications throughout the
study. Before and after each phase the researchers measured a range of
blood chemistry variables among them platelet-dependent thrombosis
(PDT) which is a measure of the blood's tendency to form clots. The
average (median) PDT was found to be 35 per cent lower in patients
taking magnesium than in patients taking the placebo. It is interesting
that the researchers found no significant differences in blood serum
magnesium levels even after three months of supplementation. This
confirms that blood serum is a very poor indicator of magnesium status
in the body. This is perhaps not surprising as 99 per cent of the
body's magnesium content is found in bones and cells rather than in the
blood. The researchers conclude that oral magnesium supplementation may
benefit CAD patients.



Magnesium supplementation reduces bone loss

LOMA LINDA, CALIFORNIA.

Quote:




It is generally assumed that an adequate calcium intake is essential in
promoting the achievement of peak bone mass in growing children and
young adults. Now researchers at the University of Graz Medical School
in Austria and the Loma Linda University in California suggest that an
adequate magnesium intake may be equally important. About half the
body's reservoir of magnesium is found in soft tissue while the other
half is found in bone. Excess magnesium is excreted in the urine. The
researchers recently completed an experiment in which 12 healthy, young
men received 350 mg of magnesium as a daily oral supplement for a
30-day period. A comparison of the level of biomarkers for bone
turnover in the supplemented group and in an age-matched control group
showed a statistically significant decrease in the level of these
biomarkers in the supplemented group. Neither the supplement group nor
the control group were deficient in magnesium and had a dietary intake
of about 300 mg/day (RDA is 300-350 mg/day). The researchers conclude
that magnesium supplementation (over and above the current RDA) may
suppress bone turnover in young adults and speculate that it may also
help prevent age- related osteoporosis.



Sports drinks lack magnesium

HONOLULU, HAWAII.



Quote:




Dr. Robert Whang MD, Professor of Medicine at the University of Hawaii,
believes that commonly available sports drinks like Gatorade, Allsport
and Powerade are less than optimum for rehydration purposes because
they contain no magnesium. Dr. Whang points out that adequate levels of
intracellular potassium and magnesium are important in ensuring
sufficient blood flow to the muscles and internal organs, in
maintaining normal acid-base balance, and in controlling the level of
excitation of the nerves, particularly in the heart. Magnesium is a
vital component in the synthesis of ATP (the body's main energy
source), DNA, RNA and protein, and is required for proper nerve
conduction, muscle contraction, cell division, and transport across
cell membranes. Magnesium losses during strenuous exercise can be quite
considerable and are accompanied by significant losses of potassium as
well. There is also some evidence that a magnesium deficiency can
interfere with the reuptake of potassium after dehydration. The United
States Army has recently developed a new rehydration beverage
specifically designed for troops operating in desert and tropical
environments. The new drink, Army CE 1, contains 128 mg of sodium, 96
mg of potassium, and 16 mg of magnesium per 240 ml. In comparison the
popular sports drink Gatorade contains 110 mg of sodium, 30 mg of
potassium, and no magnesium. Dr. Whang concludes that consideration
should be given to adding magnesium to sports drinks. He points out
that the American diet is usually deficient in magnesium and suggests
that people engaged in strenuous sports activities supplement with the
RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for magnesium (350 mg/day for men and
280 mg/day for women in the USA) provided they do not suffer from
kidney failure.



Magnesium combats mitral valve prolapse syndrome

WARSAW, POLAND.



Quote:




Mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVP) is a fairly frequent disorder and
is particularly prevalent among women of childbearing age. It usually
manifests itself through symptoms such as chest pain, palpitations,
anxiety, headaches, and a low level of vital energy. It can be
clinically confirmed through an echocardiogram. The cause of MVP is not
clear and there is no effective conventional treatment. Researchers at
the Grochowski Hospital in Warsaw now report that MVP is related to a
magnesium deficiency and can be successfully treated with oral
administration of magnesium supplements. Their study involved 141
patients (124 women and 17 men aged 16 to 57 years) whose diagnosis of
MVP had been confirmed by echocardiography. The researchers measured
the serum (blood) level of magnesium in the 141 patients and in 40
matched, healthy controls. They found that 60 per cent of the MVP
patients had an abnormally low magnesium level (<0.7 mmol/L) while
only five per cent of the controls had a low level. Seventy of the
patients (64 women and 6 men) were then randomized to receive either
oral magnesium supplementation or a placebo for a five-week period. The
magnesium group received 1800 mg/day of magnesium carbonate (510 mg of
elementary magnesium) for the first week and than 1200 mg/day of
magnesium carbonate (340 mg of elementary magnesium) for the remaining
weeks. At the end of the test period all participants were evaluated
for MVP symptoms, anxiety level, serum magnesium level, and urine
content of adrenaline and noradrenaline. The average number of MVP
symptoms in the patients treated with magnesium decreased from 10.4 to
5.6 after treatment. There was no significant change among the patients
in the placebo group. The number of patients reporting a high level of
anxiety decreased from 32 (54 per cent) to 9 (15 per cent) after
supplementation with no change observed in the placebo group. The level
of noradrenaline excreted in the urine also declined markedly after
magnesium supplementation (from 42 micrograms/gram/24 hours to 26.8
micrograms/gram/24 hours), but increased in the placebo group. The
researchers conclude that MVP symptoms are linked to a magnesium
deficiency and believe that this deficiency may be caused by an
increased release of adrenaline and noradrenaline in MVP patients. They
also conclude that magnesium supplementation is effective in combatting
MVP symptoms particularly anxiety. They speculate that this beneficial
effect could be due to magnesium's ability to inhibit the toxic effects
of an excessive release of catecholamines (adrenaline and
noradrenaline).



Magnesium reduces cerebral palsy risk

ATLANTA, GEORGIA.


Quote:




Cerebral palsy is a serious muscle disorder caused by brain anomalies
which affects babies even before they are born. It is particularly
prevalent among very low-birth-weight babies (weight less than 1500 g
at birth). These babies are also at much greater risk of being mentally
retarded. Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
now report that administration of magnesium sulfate to pregnant women
prior to giving birth reduces dramatically the incidence of cerebral
palsy and mental retardation among very low-birth-weight infants. Their
study involved over 1000 very low- birth-weight infants born live in
the Atlanta region between April 1986 and March 1988. The researchers
found that babies born to mothers who had been given magnesium sulfate
for pregnancy complications were 10 times less likely to be born with
cerebral palsy and more than three times less likely to be born with
mental retardation than were babies born to mothers who had not been
given magnesium sulfate prior to giving birth. The researchers conclude
that giving magnesium sulfate to all mothers in danger of delivering a
very low-birth-weight infant might prevent 63 per cent of all cases of
cerebral palsy and 49 per cent of all cases of mental retardation in
low-birth-weight babies. They caution though that some women may have
contraindications to magnesium sulfate therapy.

Schendel, Diana E., et al. Prenatal magnesium sulfate exposure and the
risk for cerebral palsy or mental retardation among very
low-birth-weight children aged 3 to 5 years.
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PostSubject: Re: Cardiology... Magnesium   Thu Sep 20, 2007 10:15 pm

Muscle cramps cured with magnesium

ST. JOHN'S, CANADA.



Quote:




Canadian doctors report on two cases of severe muscle cramps which were
relieved by the intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate. The first
case involved a 17-year-old soldier who had been exercising too
strenuously and developed muscle spasms so severe that he was
immobilized. The soldier was hospitalized and underwent a battery of
tests. The only abnormality found was a low concentration of magnesium
in the blood serum (0.54 mmol/L vs. a normal range of 0.7 to 1.5
mmol/L). The soldier was given two intravenous infusions of magnesium
sulfate in a saline solution. His pain lessened significantly within 48
hours and was gone after four days. The second case involved an
81-year-old woman who was hospitalized with abdominal cramps so severe
that even injections of Demerol and morphine could not subdue the pain.
Laboratory tests showed a significant magnesium deficiency (serum level
was 0.50 mmol/L). The patient was given a slow intravenous infusion of
five grams of magnesium sulfate in a 2000 ml N saline solution over a
24-hour period. She was completely pain-free by the third day and was
discharged after another week "never feeling better for years". The
doctors conclude that diuretic therapy (with furosemide) was almost
certainly the cause of this latter case of muscle cramps. They also
recommend that physicians do a magnesium level check whenever patients
complain of muscle cramps, muscle weakness or neuromuscular
dysfunction. Oral supplements have also been found effective in
treating muscle cramps with the preferred form being magnesium
glucoheptonate or magnesium gluconate.



Magnesium deficiency linked to diabetes

NEW YORK, NY.

Quote:




Researchers at Columbia University report that as many as one in three
diabetics may lack magnesium. Magnesium deficiencies have also been
implicated in cardiac arrhythmias, vasospasms, and seizures. It is
believed that a lack of magnesium leads to increased insulin
resistance, ie. a faulty metabolism of carbohydrates that causes
unoxidized sugar to accumulate in the blood and urine (diabetes
mellitus). Although the increase in insulin resistance caused by
magnesium deficiency is most pronounced in diabetics it can also occur
in non-diabetics. Furthermore, it is now clear that magnesium
absorption is impaired in diabetics thus setting up a vicious cycle of
magnesium deficiency and insulin resistance. The researchers believe
that insulin-dependent diabetics can benefit substantially from oral
supplementation with magnesium (hydroxide or chloride). They also point
out that magnesium supplementation (six weeks of magnesium chloride,
384 mg/day) has been found to lower systolic blood pressure in type II
diabetics (by about 7 mm Hg). The recommended magnesium intake for
adults is 300-400 mg/day, but significantly higher intakes may be
required to correct severe depletion. Supplementation is not
recommended for patients with kidney disease.


















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PostSubject: Re: Cardiology... Magnesium   Thu Sep 20, 2007 10:15 pm

Magnesium in drinking water prevents heart attacks

GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN.



Quote:




Previous studies have shown that there is a significant correlation
between mortality from cardiovascular disease and drinking water
hardness. Now Swedish researchers report that men who live in areas
where the drinking water has a high content of magnesium are much less
likely to suffer a heart attack than are men who live in areas with a
low content. Their study involved 854 men who had died from a heart
attack between ages 50 and 69 years and 989 age-matched controls who
died from cancer during the seven-year study period. All the men lived
within a well defined study area in which the drinking water was
supplied by 17 different municipal water works. The magnesium content
of the water supply varied significantly between the municipalities,
but had not changed over a 10-year period. The researchers found that
the incidence of fatal heart attacks was 35 per cent lower in areas
where the magnesium content of the drinking water was 9.8 mg/liter or
more than in areas where the content was 3.5 mg/liter or less. The
calcium content of the water was not significantly associated with the
incidence of fatal heart attacks. The researchers believe that
magnesium protects against fatal heart attacks through its ability to
prevent arrhythmias and artery spasms. They also point out that many
people are magnesium deficient and that drinking water with a high
magnesium content may just be enough to help prevent heart attacks.
Magnesium in water is more easily absorbed than magnesium in food. The
absorption of magnesium is significantly affected by the simultaneous
intake of other nutrients such as sugar, phytates, saturated fats,
proteins, calcium, and phosphates.





Magnesium effective in treatment of osteoporosis

ADELAIDE, AUSTRALIA.

Quote:




Dr. Ivor Dreosti of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organization has just released a major report detailing the current
knowledge of the importance of magnesium in human nutrition. Magnesium
is involved in the functioning of more than 200 enzymes and is a key
player in the body's energy (ATP) cycle. The recommended dietary intake
is 300-400 mg/day (in the U.S.A.), an amount which many scientists now
feel may be insufficient. It is also clear that many people do not even
get the recommended intake and that this can lead to problems with
muscle spasms and idiopathic mitral valve prolapse. Dr. Dreosti points
out that the body's requirement is increased markedly by both stress
and vigorous exercise. Recent tests have also shown that exercise
capacity can be significantly increased by the use of magnesium
supplements. Many researchers are now also reporting that magnesium
deficiency plays a significant role in the development of osteoporosis.
Studies have shown that women suffering from osteoporosis tend to have
a lower magnesium intake than normal and also have lower levels of
magnesium in their bones. It is also clear that recommendations to
postmenopausal women to increase calcium intake can lead to an
unfavourable Ca:Mg ratio unless the magnesium intake is increased
accordingly; the optimum ratio of Ca:Mg is believed to be 2:1. A
magnesium deficiency can also affect the production of the biologically
active form of vitamin D and thereby further promoting osteoporosis.
Some very recent research shows that magnesium supplementation is
effective in treating osteoporosis. A trial in Israel showed that
postmenopausal women suffering from osteoporosis could stop further
bone loss by supplementing with 250-750 mg/day of magnesium for two
years. Some (8 per cent) of the treated women even experienced a
significant increase in trabecular bone density. Untreated controls
lost bone mass at the rate of 1 per cent per year. Another experiment
in Czechoslovakia found that 65 per cent of women who supplemented with
1500 to 3000 mg of magnesium lactate daily for two years completely got
rid of their pain and stopped further development of deformities of the
vertebrae. Other studies have shown that magnesium is helpful in the
treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and that an adequate intake may help
prevent atherosclerosis.





Natural mineral salt lowers blood pressure

ROTTERDAM, NETHERLANDS.

Quote:




Medical researchers at the Erasmus University Medical School have
discovered a natural mineral salt which significantly lowers blood
pressure in people suffering from mild to moderate hypertension. The
salt, "SagaSalt" (Akzo Nobel, Netherlands) occurs naturally in Iceland
and contains 41 per cent sodium chloride, 41 per cent potassium
chloride, 17 per cent magnesium salts and 1 per cent trace minerals.
The researchers tested the salt in a randomized double blind placebo
controlled trial involving 100 men and women aged 55 to 75 years. The
participants had systolic blood pressures between 140 and 200 mm Hg or
diastolic pressures between 85 and 100 mm Hg. Half the group used the
mineral salt in food preparation and at the table while the other half
used common table salt (sodium chloride). Blood pressures were measured
at the start of the experiment and after 8, 16 and 24 weeks. After
eight weeks the average blood pressure in the mineral salt group had
fallen significantly. The systolic blood pressure (mean of measurement
at weeks 8, 16 and 24) fell by 7.6 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure by
3.3 mm Hg in the mineral salt group as compared with the control group.
After 24 weeks all participants went back to using common table salt
and at week 25 there was no longer any difference in blood pressures
between the two groups. The researchers conclude that replacing common
table salt with a low sodium, high potassium, high magnesium mineral
salt is an effective way of lowering blood pressure in older people
suffering from mild to moderate hypertension. NOTE: Systolic pressure
is the first (highest) reading given in a blood pressure measurement,
diastolic is the second (lowest) reading, i.e. 120/80.



Magnesium deficiency: A risk factor for asthma?

NOTTINGHAM, ENGLAND.



Quote:




Researchers at the University of Nottingham have concluded that a high
intake of magnesium is associated with a better lung function and a
reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing. Their study
involved 2633 adults aged 18 to 70 years whose average daily magnesium
intake was 380 mg as estimated via a diet questionnaire. The actual
magnesium intake varied widely from 182 to 654 mg/day in men and from
160 to 527 mg/day for women. The researchers estimate that the daily
steady state requirement may be as high as 420 mg/day and conclude that
a substantial proportion of adults in the U.K. are deficient in their
magnesium intake. They also conclude from their experiment that the
lung capacity (forced expiratory volume) of participants who had a 100
mg/day higher than average intake of magnesium was significantly better
than among participants with a lower intake. Participants who consumed
more magnesium also reported less wheezing within the preceding 12
months and showed less reactivity when challenged with a methacholine
spray. The researchers conclude that a magnesium deficiency may be
implicated in the development of asthma and other chronic obstructive
airways diseases.



Magnesium supplement lowers blood pressure

ROTTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS.

Quote:




A double-blind controlled trial was recently carried out by Dutch and
Belgian researchers in order to determine if oral supplementation with
magnesium is an effective way of lowering blood pressure in women
suffering from mild to moderate hypertension. Their experiment involved
91 women between 35 and 77 years of age who did not take
anti-hypertensive medication. All the women had a systolic blood
pressure between 140 and 185 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure between 90
and 105 mm Hg. After a two-week period where all subjects received a
placebo, the participants were randomly assigned to two groups. One
group continued to receive the placebo while the other group received
485 mg per day of magnesium aspartate-HCl. Both the placebo and the
magnesium supplement were supplied in the form of four packets of
water-soluble powder per day to be taken with meals. At the end of the
six- month trial period the systolic blood pressure in the magnesium
supplementation group had decreased by 2.7 mm Hg and the diastolic
pressure by 3.4 mm Hg when compared to the placebo group. The
researchers conclude that oral supplementation with magnesium
aspartate-HCl may be effective in lowering blood pressure in people
suffering from mild to moderate hypertension who are not taking
anti-hypertensive drugs.

Witteman, Jacqueline C.M., et al. Reduction of blood pressure with oral
magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension.



Magnesium prevents death from heart attack

LEICESTER, ENGLAND.


Quote:




Medical doctors at the Leicester Royal Infirmary report that the
previously found reduction in mortality among heart attack patients
injected with magnesium sulfate is long term in nature. The doctors'
original study involved 2316 randomly selected heart attack victims.
Half of the patients were given 8 mmol of magnesium sulfate injected
intravenously over five minutes within three hours or less of the first
symptoms of the attack; this was followed by a total of 65 mmol of
magnesium sulfate supplied by constant infusion over a 24-hour period.
The placebo group received the same amount of saline solution. After 28
days, 24 per cent fewer patients in the magnesium group had died than
in the placebo group. The doctors followed up on all the patients for
an average of 2.7 years (1.0 - 5.5 years) and now report that the
longer term mortality rate from ischaemic heart disease was reduced by
21 per cent and the all-cause mortality rate by 16 per cent in the
magnesium-treated patients. The researchers point out that it is
important that the magnesium be administered quickly (within three
hours of onset of symptoms) and before the start of thrombolytic
therapy.
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PostSubject: Re: Cardiology... Magnesium   Thu Sep 20, 2007 10:16 pm

Magnesium helps patients with heart failure

CHAPEL HILL, NORTH CAROLINA.

Quote:




Researchers at the University of North Carolina have found that
magnesium injections lower the frequency and severity of ventricular
arrhythmias in patients with heart failure. Twenty-one men and nine
women aged 49 +9.6 years participated in the double-blind, placebo-
controlled crossover experiment. The active treatment consisted of one
injection of 0.3 mEq/kg magnesium chloride in 5 per cent dextrose in
water followed by continuous infusion of a dextrose/water magnesium
chloride solution (0.08 mEq/kg per hour) over 24 hours. The placebo
treatment was similar except that the magnesium chloride was omitted
from the dextrose/water solution. The number of PVCs (premature
ventricular contractions) per hour was reduced by 53 per cent in the
magnesium group as compared to the placebo group; the number of
episodes of ventricular tachycardia was reduced by 69 per cent and in
the patients who did have such episodes the heart rate was
significantly lower than during placebo treatment (143 beats/minute vs.
179 beats/minute). The researchers recommend that a larger study be
undertaken to determine if oral administration of magnesium would have
similar benefits.



Magnesium saves lives

LEICESTER, ENGLAND.

Quote:




Reports of the beneficial effects of the use of magnesium in the
treatment of heart attack patients date back to the 1960s. More recent
studies show a possible 25% reduction in mortality among patients
injected with magnesium. Now a large study carried out at the Leicester
Royal Infirmary in England confirms the beneficial effects. The
experiment involved 2316 randomly selected heart attack victims. Half
of the patients were given an injection of 8 mmol of magnesium sulfate
injected intravenously over 5 minutes followed by a total of 65 mmol
supplied by constant infusion over a 24-hour period. The placebo group
received the same amount of saline solution. After 28 days, 90 of the
1150 patients treated with magnesium had died as compared to 118 of the
1150 patients in the placebo group. This corresponds to a 24% reduction
in mortality. Researchers involved in the studies conclude that
magnesium injection is a safe, effective, and inexpensive therapy in
the management of myocardial infarction (heart attack).



Magnesium helps recovery after bypass surgery

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND.

Quote:




Patients having undergone coronary bypass surgery often suffer from
ventricular dysrhythmias and decreased stroke volume immediately after
the operation. Medical doctors at the Sinai Hospital of Baltimore have
now found that supplementation with magnesium markedly decreases the
frequency of these serious complications. One hundred patients were
studied over a 6-month period; 50 were given an intravenous infusion of
magnesium chloride (2 grams) immediately after the operation while the
other 50 were given a placebo. The magnesium treated patients suffered
significantly fewer ventricular dysrhythmias (16% vs. 34%) than did the
untreated patients.





Dietary fiber and magnesium prevent hypertension

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.

Quote:




Doctors at the Harvard School of Public Health have completed a study
to determine the relationship between diet and hypertension (high blood
pressure). The study involved over 30,000 male health professionals 40
to 75 years old. The baseline mean systolic blood pressure for the men
was 125.5 mm at age 40-44 and 133.7 mm at age 70-75. The diastolic
blood pressure at 79.3 to 80.4 mm was relatively unchanged with age.
During four years of follow-up 1248 of the men developed hypertension.
An analysis showed that participants consuming less than 250 mg per day
of magnesium had a 50% greater chance of developing hypertension than
had men who consumed 400 mg/day or more. Similarly, an intake of less
than 2.4 g/day of potassium increased the risk of hypertension by 50%
as compared to an intake of 3.6 g/day or more. The most striking effect
was found in the case of dietary fiber where an intake of 24 grams/day
or more was found to provide significant protection. A higher intake of
dietary fiber, magnesium, and potassium was also found to be associated
with lower blood pressure in healthy men. The results of this study
confirm the findings of an earlier study involving 58,000 nurses. The
authors point out that although diet is important in preventing
hypertension, its effect is overshadowed by the risk imposed by obesity
and excessive alcohol intake.



Magnesium deficiency and heart disease go together

TUCSON, ARIZONA.

Quote:




Researchers at the University Medical Center in Tucson have confirmed
that magnesium deficiency is closely associated with cardiovascular
disease. Lowered serum magnesium concentrations have been found in
heart attack patients and administration of magnesium has proven
beneficial in treating ventricular arrhythmias, particularly those
caused by digoxin toxicity.





Magnesium may prevent fatal heart attacks

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA.

Quote:




Sudden fatal heart attacks claim over 300,000 victims each year in the
U.S. alone. Fatal heart attacks are more common in areas where the
water supply is magnesium deficient. Dr. Eisenberg at the University of
California now suggests that there is a definite link between magnesium
deficiency and sudden fatal heart attacks. He points out that the
average human body contains about 24 grams of magnesium and requires a
daily intake of 200-400 milligrams. The actual average intake through
food and drinking water is often significantly less than the
requirement particularly in areas having a supply of soft drinking
water. The doctor recommends large scale studies to evaluate the
potential benefits of oral magnesium supplementation.


















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